Unix: Knowing your memory commands

Memory is one of the most important parts of your Unix system for performance. Let's look at some commands that will tell you what you need to know about how your memory is being used.

Memory is still one of the things that most determines how well your Unix servers will perform. Knowing what commands will tell you what you need to know and what their responses mean will help keep you alert to potential problems and give you something to compare against when and if your system starts to slow down.

free

One of the most basic memory commands available on Linux systems is the free command. Free will report memory usage in kilobytes if you don't tell it otherwise. The command below uses the -m option to convert this to megabytes -- a little easier a format for me to deal with and maybe for you as well.

$ free -m
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:          2026       1524        502          0        556        584
-/+ buffers/cache:        383       1643
Swap:         4094         40       4054

This system has 2 GB of memory, of which about 75% is in use. It has twice that much swap, but is using almost none of it.

sar

The sar command, deriving from Solaris and sometimes available on Linux systems as well, is a great tool for looking at memory usage over a long period of time. This is especially helpful if you want to see how your systems are performing all week or to compare one day with another. The sar command is one of the best tools for routine performance reporting. Frequently set up to collect data periodically throughout the week, it can also be used to tell you how performance measurements look right now and those measurements include memory. To get two samples of five seconds each of memory usage, you can use the sar -r 5 2 command as shown below.

$ sar -r 5 2

SunOS boson 5.10 Generic_127127-11 sun4u    07/20/2014

16:26:16 freemem freeswap
16:26:21    5591   733840
16:26:26    5591   733840

Average     5591   733840

The units reported by sar are pages (freemem) and disk blocks (freeswap). To understand what these numbers really mean, you need to determine what these values represent. Fortunately, there are some commands to help you figure this out.

pagesize

We can use the Solaris pagesize command to display the page size -- normally 8192 bytes or 8 KB.

$ pagesize
8192

df -g

For disk blocks, we need to look at the sizing parameters for the particular file system. Here, we see that the block size is also set to 8192 bytes.

$ df -g /
/           (/dev/dsk/c1t0d0s0 ):         8192 block size       1024 frag size
30256454 total blocks  21252254 free blocks 20949690 available 1822912 total files
 1657400 free files     8388632 filesys id
     ufs fstype      0x00000004 flag             255 filename length

Of course, you still need to marry these numbers together -- the block size from the df -g command and the pagesize. You can do this with the expr command.

expr

$ expr 5591 \* 8192
45801472

Numbers like 45801472 have me counting off the digits. You might like this expr command better as it gives you the measurement in MB. This is, however, free memory, not overall memory.

$ expr 5591 \* 8192 / 1000000
45

Getting an idea how much overall memory is installed on the system regardless of whether or not it's in use is even easier. Use the prtconf command and grep on the word "Memory" and you'll see something like this though, but hopefully something in the range of GB, not MB.

$ prtconf | grep Memory
Memory size: 512 Megabytes

meminfo

To get some quick memory information on a Linux system, you can also use the meminfo command. Looking at the meminfo file, we can see how much memory is installed as well as how much is free.

$ cat /proc/meminfo | head -2
MemTotal:      2074932 kB
MemFree:        506820 kB

To make your display a little more interesting and add measurements for swap, run a command like this:

$ egrep --color 'Mem|Cache|Swap' /proc/meminfo
MemTotal:      2074932 kB
MemFree:        507144 kB
Cached:         593552 kB
SwapCached:      25304 kB
SwapTotal:     4192956 kB
SwapFree:      4151476 kB

In this command, we're using egrep to pull out any lines that have one of the three strings -- mem, cache, or swap -- within them.

vmstat

The vmstat command is one you'll find both on Linux and Solaris. As you can see from the display below, it has a lot to tell you, but the output is just a tad cryptic and may vary from one flavor of Unix to another. The vmstat command also tells you about a lot more than memory. Though you can see the swap and free memory numbers below, we also see some stats related to disk activity and CPU usage.

linux$ vmstat
procs -----------memory---------- ---swap-- -----io---- --system-- -----cpu------
 r  b   swpd   free   buff  cache   si   so    bi    bo   in   cs us sy id wa st
 0  1  41480 514464 570160 598228    0    0     0     3    1    0 15 15 70  0  0
solaris$ vmstat
 kthr      memory            page            disk          faults      cpu
 r b w   swap  free  re  mf pi po fr de sr s0 s3 s3 --   in   sy   cs us sy id
 0 0 0 847576 74392   8   7 45  0  0  0  0  0  0 -0  0  420   45  125  0  1 98

top

One of my favorite commands for looking at performance is top, simply because it tells me so much about how a system is performing and in a format that is easy to digest.

$ top
top - 19:34:52 up 183 days,  7:58,  1 user,  load average: 1.05, 1.01, 1.00
Tasks: 186 total,   2 running, 184 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
Cpu(s): 15.2%us, 14.6%sy,  0.1%ni, 70.0%id,  0.2%wa,  0.0%hi,  0.0%si,  0.0%st
Mem:   2074932k total,  1560840k used,   514092k free,   570160k buffers
Swap:  4192956k total,    41480k used,  4151476k free,   598220k cached

  PID USER      PR  NI  VIRT  RES  SHR S %CPU %MEM    TIME+  COMMAND
32522 csi135b7  25   0  4604 1104  972 R 100.0  0.1   1233:10 timer
15380 shs       15   0  2440 1016  748 R  2.0  0.0   0:00.01 top
    1 root      15   0  2176  572  544 S  0.0  0.0   0:17.13 init
    2 root      RT  -5     0    0    0 S  0.0  0.0   0:03.37 migration/0

In this top output, we see the memory stats in rows 4 and 5. The total installed memory along with how mush is in use and free are clearly labelled.

ipcs

To look at shared memory on a Linux system, you can try the ipcs command. This command is available on both Linux and Solaris systems, but your options will vary.

$ ipcs -m

------ Shared Memory Segments --------
key        shmid      owner      perms      bytes      nattch     status
0x00000000 2818049    root      644        52         2
0x00000000 2850820    root      644        16384      2
0x00000000 2883589    root      644        268        2

With the -a option (the default), you'll see some additional information, though the system in this example shows that there are no semaphore arrays and message queuesin use.

$ ipcs -a

------ Shared Memory Segments --------
key        shmid      owner      perms      bytes      nattch     status
0x00000000 2818049    root      644        52         2
0x00000000 2850820    root      644        16384      2
0x00000000 2883589    root      644        268        2

------ Semaphore Arrays --------
key        semid      owner      perms      nsems

------ Message Queues --------
key        msqid      owner      perms      used-bytes   messages

Most Unix memory commands are faily easy to use and understand and frequent use will give you a feel for how your systems perform under normal circumstances and prepare you to notice when you system is in trouble.

Read more of Sandra Henry-Stocker's Unix as a Second Language blog and follow the latest IT news at ITworld, Twitter and Facebook.

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