Relaxing into 2002


From time-to-time, a markup technology comes along without much fanfare

that really changes the way we think about and build XML systems. The

SAX API, developed under the tutelage of David Megginson on the XML-DEV

mailing list, springs to mind. Without a big brouhaha or marketing

budget, without the imprimatur of any august institution or consortium,

SAX has quietly become an indispensable part of the XML application

development landscape.

I strongly suspect that RELAX NG (http://www.RELAX is following

in the footsteps of SAX. SAX was a humble blend of simplicity and

pragmatism aimed at providing an event-oriented API for XML processing.

Similarly, RELAX NG is a humble blend of simplicity and pragmatism

aimed at providing a validation system for XML documents.

RELAX NG schemas are themselves XML documents. Now those of you who

work with XSLT know that can be a mixed blessing. On one hand, you can

throw all your XML processing tools at them; on the other hand, they

can be somewhat legibility challenged.

RELAX NG is a pure delight in this regard, being truly readable after

an hour or two of practice. Furthermore, you can intermingle your own

markup at will into a RELAX NG schema, which makes adding your own

annotations for documentation and module maintenance very simple.

Anyone familiar with DTDs that wish to play around with Relax should

get DTDinst (, a Java based tool

that converts DTDs into RELAX NG notation.

RELAX NG focused on validation; it does not concern itself with

modifying the validated document in any way. DTDs allow you to do that,

particularly by using default attribute values. This and some

other "omissions" from RELAX NG are, in fact, improvements. DTDs suffer

from doing more than specify validation rules; they also get involved

in conditional inclusion, macro expansion, and data-typing to name but

three. RELAX NG leaves these out, finally creating a clean separation

between validation and all these other XML processing features that can

be -- as they should be -- implemented in separate layers.

The conciseness and remarkable brevity (given its XML syntax) of RELAX

NG reminds me of the phrase, variously attributed to Shaw, Russell, and

Pascal: "Please excuse the length of this letter; I do not have time to

be brief.". The designers of RELAX NG (principally James Clark and

MURATA Makoto) have taken the time to be brief. The syntax is clearly

the result of a lot of thought and effort.

Most impressive of all is the fact that this combination of brevity and

power is not at the expense of formalism and rigor, which underlies

RELAX NG in abundance. The full details are available on the Oasis site


where work on RELAX NG continues.

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