Aside from the obvious connectivity-dependent things, apps can do some things that websites can't do (or certainly can't do as easily), notes Todd Miller, Managing Director, The Archer Group, a web development firm. "For example, you'd need to use an app to take a picture of something -- your surroundings, a receipt, etc. -- and upload it. Apps also have access to the address book and other core smartphone functions. A mobile site can achieve limited access, including your smartphone's GPS."
Other smartphone features you need an app to access -- or that may be possible but will be much harder from a website -- include accessing the file system and path, and using the compass and accelerometer, according to Justin Smith, Manager of UX Development, thunder::tech, an integrated (online and offline) marketing agency.
When which approach makes the most sense
Your content goals, coding technology/skill sets, budget, timing, and whether you're looking to add alongside an existing system or are ready to rip-and-replace all play a role in choosing responsive/adaptive design vs. mobilized site vs. apps to reach smartphone users.
"If your goal is just to display and show content, I suggest a responsive or mobilized website," says Icreon Tech's Varghese. "If your goal is to show productivity tools, build an app."
"The value proposition is very different," says Bright & Shiny's John Armstrong. "The mobile app may do something very different from their website."
That's not necessarily bad, Armstrong claims. "Desktop is about data mining and collection -- 'lean forward,' engage and interact with the content, in 'hunter mode.' Mobile tends to be action-focused -- 'Where am I, what's available, like, say, where's the closest restaurant?' And in a mobility world, our networks and devices can push us relevant content and action. For most classic websites, that doesn't exist."
"Most people don't want to install an app just to get static information," says Michael Freeman, Senior Manager, Search, ShoreTel Sky, a cloud-based hosted-PBX service. "Our website provides information about our products, services and company, and is the main way we generate new business leads."
"You want a mobile-friendly version of your site," Freeman advises, "so that if somebody discovers it from a smartphone or tablet -- perhaps from checking email -- they've got a link that delivers a good mobile experience."
On the other hand, "A mobile app makes sense if you are trying to offer something you want smartphone owners to use on a daily basis," says Freeman. "Another reason to do something as a mobile app is if it requires a lot of interaction, like entering travel expenses."
"Building a responsive site is less expensive than doing two sites," says ShoreTel Sky's Freeman. But responsive also "means I do not have to maintain separate code bases or websites, while the look-and-feel and the user experience is consistent on any platform, and any form factor will deliver a good experience," adds Tommy Landry, President, Return On Now, an Internet marketing consultancy. Even better, my team can manage the whole site via a CMS (Content Management System), so we do not need any manual intervention from developers to make changes or launch pages."
While adding smartphone accessibility can't help but push up the development and testing budget, "Our web developers know JScript, CSS, and other web technologies," says Joe Gerard, VP Sales & Marketing, i-Sight, which provides configurable Case Management for Investigations. "Building apps requires a different set of language skills. And developing and testing multiple apps for 100 or more mobile device scenarios would add many times the expense versus building a browser-based application."
The cost difference to serve a mobile as well as a desktop audience?
"For a desktop-oriented website that might cost $30,000 to $50,000, adding mobile adaptivity might add another $15,000 to $25,000," ballparks Icreon Tech's Varghese. "Responsive design would cost more, because there's more work, particularly more testing involved."
Pragmatically, over time, the odds are that more new websites will take smartphones and other mobile devices into consideration from the beginning. "If we do anything, it will start out with responsive design," says Matt Howell, Global Chief Digital Officer, at advertising firm Arnold Worldwide. "There's no project that isn't at least responsive, and from there, we'll ask 'how much more important is the mobile user case?' to consider also doing adaptive design."
"A stand-alone mobile site is usually the least expensive approach, but it's probably a stopgap to going to a responsive/adaptive design," says Archer Group's Todd Miller. "Responsive design will be less expensive to maintain in the long-run. The nightmare of a mobile-only site is that you're designing for specific phones and handsets, while responsive design is more flexible."
"None of this is cheap," Accella's King stresses. "Desktop, mobile web, and apps are all different marketing channels. You have to decide where to focus your development budget.... If you have the budget, do it all. It's like other marketing channels. You should have a mobile website, native iOS and Android apps, be on Facebook, etc. If you're smaller, you have to evaluate on a case by case basis. An app may help you reach out, be a good marketing ploy."