CIO.com: Your research found that "talent" was cited as the main driver for setting up a captive center offshore. But with unemployment levels in Western countries so high, isn't that just code for "cheaper talent"?
Oshri: True, but I won't call it "cheaper talent." It is talent at the right price and value.
CIO.com: Did it surprise or concern you that 37% of company executives you surveyed said they did not know why they set up a captive center-or would not answer the question.
Oshri: There are many reasons for setting up a captive center, beyond talent, costs, infrastructure and government policy, which firms tend not share with the public.
CIO.com: What are the best examples of a successful IT or IT-BPO captive centers?
Oshri: Some experts suggest that the nature and purpose of captive centers must evolve for them to be successful. WNS, previously owned by British Airways, has evolved from a basic captive providing services to a parent firm to a larger center that now provides services to international customers as well. Genpact, formerly a captive center owned by GE, is another successful example. They have transformed from transform service and cost centers to profit centers.
CIO.com: So in these examples, divestiture is not a sign of failure but part of the evolution of a successful captive?
CIO.com: What industry owns the most offshore IT or IT-plus captives and why?
Oshri: The electronics and computing industry is the biggest operator of captives. The simple reason for that is that this industry has utilized the captive model to do research and development offshore as well as set up shared service centers around the globe.
CIO.com: You found that India is still the prime location for offshore IT captives. Are there any near- or long-term competitors?
Oshri: Countries in Central and Eastern Europe are emerging as serious contenders to India.
CIO.com: It's clear that captives have to be pretty big to succeed. How can small or mid-size companies take advantage of them?
Oshri: SMEs will explore ways to use existing captive facilities. I cannot see the logic for such firms to set up their own captives. There isn't enough scale.
CIO.com: Many of us think of the offshore captive center as a 20th century innovation. But you say it dates back to the seventeenth century when the East India Company first established its factories in India, recognizing the cost-effectiveness, flexibility, and viability of having a company foothold in the targeted trade country. Are captives here to stay?
Oshri: I think it is here to stay but the concept is going to evolve over time.
Ilan Oshri is associate professor of strategy and technology management at Erasmus University's Rotterdam School of Management in the Netherlands.