sensible sudo-ing

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Linux has gone a long way to popularize the use of sudo. While it doesn't seem all that long since common practice involved having multiple admins all logging in as root and doing all of their work without ever logging in with their personal accounts, admins today will generally log in with unprivileged accounts and use more precise sudo commands to do run just the commands that are required by the tasks at hand. This is a big leap forward for security as we can now have some way to tell who has run what privileged commands. That kind of accountability allows you to answer big questions like "What just happened?" when changes on your servers which might otherwise have been very difficult to track down.

Configuration of the sudoers file is, however, still fairly complicated and somewhat tricky. In addition, some of the ramifications of overly generous allocations of privilege may not be readily obvious to anyone new to sudo. Let's take a look at some of these.

One of the key configuration lines in the default /etc/sudoers file on many Linux systems is this line that allows anyone who is a member of the wheel group to run any command on any system with the power of root:

## Allows people in group wheel to run all commands
%wheel  ALL=(ALL)       ALL

The %wheel part of this line means "all members of the wheel group". That syntax, by the way (% followed by the groupname), can be applied to any group that you have defined in your /etc/group file (e.g., %users, %developers, $techsupport -- whatever you've set up).

To find out who is part of the wheel group, you would generally just grep on the /etc/group file, although it is possible that some people might be members by virtue of having this group be their native group (i.e., the one assigned in the /etc/passwd file). This isn't likely the case on Linux servers which tend to put each person in his or her own user group.

Each of the three specifications of "ALL" in the %wheel line shown above each mean something different. The first means all systems, the second all users, and the last all commands. Even this is a bit tricky. I have to review this syntax myself if I haven't looked at /etc/sudoers in a few months. The whole line then means that anyone included in the wheel group -- like sbob and jdoe in the example below -- can run any command with the authority of root.

# grep wheel /etc/group
wheel:x:10:sbob,jdoe

This also means that anyone in the wheel group can run any command as any user (the second ALL). So, the user jdoe could run the command "sudo -u sbob touch /home/sbob/yadda" and create a file in sbob's home that belongs to sbob. Maybe you want your admins to have that kind of control, but this kind of privilege should probably be granted only if it's absolutely needed.

A better strategy would be to restrict sudo commands to running as root.

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