The New York Times was told by an unnamed source that Steve Ballmer, chief executive of the tech firm, will show off the OS on a tablet PC during his keynote speech at the show, which will take place in Las Vegas between January 6 and 9.
When Ballmer takes the stage, he is also expected to unveil a "slew" of new tablet PCs in a bid to rival the popularity of the Apple iPad.
Dell and Samsung are among the manufacturers that have built the tablet PCs that will be unveiled. The Samsung-manufactured device is "similar in size and shape to the Apple iPad, although it is not as thin".
The source also told the New York Times the tablet PC "includes a unique and slick keyboard that slides out from below for easy typing".
"The company believes there is a huge market for business people who want to enjoy a slate for reading newspapers and magazines and then work on Microsoft Word, Excel or PowerPoint while doing work," the source said.
Samsung has already launched a tablet PC, the Samsung Galaxy Tab, which runs Google's Android operating system, which has proved popular - selling one million units in the first two months it was on sale.
Microsoft is also encouraging its partners to develop apps for the OS that use the new web standard, HTML5.