3. Senior department and agency executives supported the programs. For example, IRS officials explained that endorsement for the project called Customer Account Data Engine (CADE 2) came from the highest levels of the organization. In particular, those officials told us that the IRS Commissioner has made CADE 2 one of his top priorities. IRS officials told us that the Commissioner, through for example, his keynote speech at a town hall meeting for IRS employees, has provided a clear and unwavering message about CADE 2. This speech and other activities have unified IRS employees, driven change, and removed barriers that can often impede programs of this magnitude.
4. End users and stakeholders were involved in the development of requirements. In this case the GAO said Census officials said that its DRIS program management office collaborated extensively with the stakeholders and the contractor to develop requirements. For example, program management office personnel, contractor staff, and the stakeholders all worked together to analyze the requirements in order to ensure they were understood, unique, and verifiable.
5. End users participated in testing of system functionality prior to formal end user acceptance testing. For example, DISA officials told the GAO they used a virtual site to connect developers and end users in online testing of evolving software repeatedly during the development of its Global Combat Support System. Using the tool, the developers were able to record the sessions, which was helpful in addressing defects identified during testing.
6. Government and contractor staff were stable and consistent. Here the GAO said DISA officials indicated that the longevity of the program management office and contractor staffs has been a contributing factor to GCSS' success. For example, the longevity of the staff contributed to them becoming subject matter experts in their areas of responsibility
7. Program staff prioritized requirements. FAA officials told the GAO end users on its Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS) presented the development team with a "wish list" of requirements that would help them significantly. Those officials told us that end users and developers prioritized those requirements by balancing importance to the end users with the maturity of the technology. FAA officials stated that prototypes of these new requirements were developed and evaluated by end users in the field and were ultimately implemented in the initial operating capability for ITWS.