Syslog Continued

By Danny Kalev, ITworld |  How-to

This week I will present the rest of the functions declared
in "sys/syslog.h", namely openlog(), closelog(), and setlogmask():

--OPENLOG
Although syslog() is sufficient for basic message logging, for more
advanced uses you may need to call openlog() before syslog(). openlog()
sets process attributes that affect subsequent calls to syslog(). Here
is the prototype of this function:

void openlog(const char *str, int options, int facility);

The first argument is a string that is prepended to every message. The
second argument describes various logging options that are indicated by
combining zero or more of the following constants using the bitwise OR
operator:

LOG_PID
Log the process ID with each message. This is useful for distinguishing
between daemon processes that have forked.

LOG_CONS
Direct messages to the system console if they cannot be sent to
syslogd.

LOG_NDELAY
Open the connection to syslogd immediately, without waiting for the
first message to be logged.

LOG_ODELAY
Delay open until the first call to syslog().

LOG_NOWAIT
Do not wait for child processes that have been forked to log messages
onto the console.

The third argument of openlog() specifies a default facility to be
assigned to all messages that do not include an explicit facility code.
The following openlog() call ...

openlog("mailer", LOG_PID, LOG_MAIL);

... prepends the string "mailer" to every log message, ensures that
the message contains the process's ID, and -- if no explicit facility
code is provided in the syslog() call -- it ensures that the message
bears the LOG_MAIL facility code.

--SETLOGMASK
The function setlogmask() has the following prototype:

int setlogmask(int maskpri);

It sets the log priority mask for the current process to maskpri and
returns the previous mask. If the maskpri argument is 0, the current
log mask isn't changed. Any calls from the current process to syslog()
with a priority code not set in maskpri are rejected. Use the macro
LOG_MASK(p) to calculate the mask for an individual priority p. To
obtain the mask for all priorities up to and including p_x, use the
macro LOG_UPT(p_x). The default log mask allows all priorities to be
logged. The following setlogmask() call ...

setlogmask(LOG_UPTO(LOG_ERR));

... ensures that only messages whose priority is LOG_ERR and above,
e.g., LOG_CRIT and LOG_EMERG, are logged; messages with lower
priorities such as LOG_DEBUG, are rejected.

--CLOSELOG
Finally, the function closelog() closes any open file descriptors
allocated by previous calls to openlog() or syslog().

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