Hot scripting language: Python
In a sense, the tipping point for Python came when the housing market crashed.
For those stuck trying to decode bond market prospectuses to figure out who got paid what when the bankruptcy dominoes were done falling, one thing became clear: English is a weaselly language, and some weaselly folks revel in its ambiguities to profit from complicated derivatives.
Enter one smart group that offered a compelling solution: Force every bond to come with a Python program that defined who got paid and when they were paid. While they may have been a bit too hopeful about the power of computer languages, the proposal spoke to Python's growing acceptance in the greater world of smart people who aren't computer geeks. Relatively easy to pick up, Python is becoming increasingly popular in economic research, science departments, and biology labs.
The popularity of Python has been noted by O'Reilly Books, which groups Python with top-selling languages like Java and C. Web searches like "python -monty" show healthy trend lines, and searches for the Python-based CMS "django -jazz" are rising, albeit not as fast as better-known tools such as Drupal or WordPress.
No doubt Python's appeal to the casual programmer is its lack of brackets. While many long-term programmers have grown used to letting the editor handle indentation, Python uses it to signify the beginning and end of blocks. Whatever the reason, it's easy to find Python lovers who prefer indentation over brackets.
Lukewarm scripting language: Ruby
Yukihiro Matsumoto developed Ruby way back in 1995 because he wanted to do his system chores with objects instead of just strings. But the language that marries the structure of object-oriented programming with the quick and easy development cycle of scripting didn't really take off until 2004, when David Heinemeier Hansson added the Rails database access layer and produced Ruby on Rails.
These days, most Ruby development consists of website prototypes crafted with Ruby on Rails. Ruby without Rails is rare, but that dominance is starting to crack, thanks to Web frameworks like Sinatra, as well as Matsumoto's focus on flexibility and agility.