Experimental programming language No. 2: Ceylon
Gavin King denies that Ceylon, the language he's developing at Red Hat, is meant to be a "Java killer." King is best known as the creator of the Hibernate object-relational mapping framework for Java. He likes Java, but he thinks it leaves lots of room for improvement.
Among King's gripes are Java's verbose syntax, its lack of first-class and higher-order functions, and its poor support for meta-programming. In particular, he's frustrated with the absence of a declarative syntax for structured data definition, which he says leaves Java "joined at the hip to XML." Ceylon aims to solve all these problems.
King and his team don't plan to reinvent the wheel completely. There will be no Ceylon virtual machine; the Ceylon compiler will output Java bytecode that runs on the JVM. But Ceylon will be more than just a compiler, too. A big goal of the project is to create a new Ceylon SDK to replace the Java SDK, which King says is bloated and clumsy, and it's never been "properly modernized."
That's a tall order, and Red Hat has released no Ceylon tools yet. King says to expect a compiler this year. Just don't expect software written in "100% pure Ceylon" any time soon.
Experimental programming language No. 3: Go
Interpreters, virtual machines, and managed code are all the rage these days. Do we really need another old-fashioned language that compiles to native binaries? A team of Google engineers -- led by Robert Griesemer and Bell Labs legends Ken Thompson and Rob Pike -- says yes.
Go is a general-purpose programming language suitable for everything from application development to systems programing. In that sense, it's more like C or C++ than Java or C#. But like the latter languages, Go includes modern features such as garbage collection, runtime reflection, and support for concurrency.