What a page looks like inside SharePoint.Click to view larger image.
SharePoint's primary reason for being is to serve as a place where things can be shared. This can include everything from documents to calendars to lists to pictures to discussion boards and more. All of it can be a part of a SharePoint site, and any user you designate within your organization's network -- and in some cases, even users outside of your network such as partners or vendors -- can then access those pieces and collaborate with you.
SharePoint 2010 has a defined list of content types that you can create on a given site. They include:
What a document library looks like inside SharePoint.Click to view larger image.
A page. This is exactly what it sounds like -- a page that is edited within the browser using the editor functionality in SharePoint. These pages primarily contain text, but you can embed images, links, lists and Web parts within them. (Web parts, or little bits of code, are sometimes installed on SharePoint pages to perform specific functions.)
A document library. You can create a document library that lets you upload Word files and other files to share. These document libraries allow you to check files out to make sure that only one person edits them at any given time, to keep versions on file so that you can see the revision history and activity of a given document and to create folders to structure documents logically within the library.
SharePoint can handle other, non-textual kinds of content, including photos.Click to view larger image.
Other kinds of libraries. These include picture libraries that store only image files and XML forms that your business can use to route information through Microsoft InfoPath, an application some companies use to process forms and route them for approval and filing. Another supported content type is a wiki; these allow for a quick way to edit text and have it remain on the Web. You can link that text to other Web pages as well -- a poor man's shareable text editor, you might say.